I’ve spent some time writing about Paul Celan’s later poems since Pierre Joris’ translations of these were published in 2014. Up until this week, however, I hadn’t read any part of his introduction.
I rarely read literary criticism because I find most of it overly dense and at variance with my experiences as an ‘ordinary’ reader. The honourable exceptions are Jacques Derrida and Joris on Celan, J H Prynne, Geoffrey Hill and Ezra Pound on Most Things Poetic. I don’t agree with any of them but I like the way they think and, in turn, make me think. This is an example of that process.
There is a brief section on Threadsuns which is the title of a poem from the Breathturn collection and also the title of the following collection. This is the poem;
THREADSUNS above the grayblack wastes. A tree- high thought grasps the light-tone: there are still songs to sing beyond mankind.
This has always struck me as bleak and despairing. The last couple of lines seem to indicate that the human race has finished rather than referring to somewhere other than earth. The ‘gray-black’ wastes’ may indicate those lands torn apart by the many slaughter of the second world war but also our world in the present.
Joris makes a couple of points that I’d like to attend to first:
For indeed, we no longer live, as the pural of the poem’s title immediately makes clear, under the cosy reassurance of a world held in place, centred around a or the sun, Helios, as it was called under the old dispensation.
Ezra Pound lamented in the Cantos that “the center does not hold” – Celan knows that this is so because there is no single center, no single sun that can hold it all up, that, in fact, there has always been only a decentered multiplicity of centers.
I’m not entirely sure that this holds up, it is a position and a perspective that I (mostly) agree with but it’s not one that seems to be present in Celan’s work. I readily admit that I have no formal training whatsoever in either philosophy or literary criticisms but I am reasonably familiar with the work of the French post-Structuralists and would expect many more instances of this perspective if this was the case. This is a pity because Joris, as well as being the best translator of the work, one of Celan’s most astute readers.
My own tentative and provisional view would be that this is either or both a sun that emits different kinds of light and other stars in other parts of the galaxy / universe . In the same part of the introduction Joris points out that; “Celan insisted, and rightly so, I believe, on the fact that his poetry was directly linked to, and arose from, the real.” This would seem to indicate that the earth still revolves in a solar system with a single sun at its centre.
The Pound quote seems to be apt in this context. I’m not one of those that rejects all of Pound’s work because of his repellent anti-semitism and fervent support of Italian Fascism. I love his earlier work but am both bored and underwhelmed by large swathes of The Cantos which seems to me a very inconsistent piece of work indeed. The fuller quote is “things fall apart, the center cannot hold” which seems to point to a real 20th century phenomenon rather than something more abstract. As a retired anarcho-nihilist, I can readily identify with the last 120 years as a period of ongoing disintegration whereby things do break up and lose their grip but I think this is a real and material product of our times.
If we imagine these threads or beams bringing different qualities of light then it seems reasonable to suppose that these may lead to all of us having different perspectives on things.
I’ve found this poem so very bleak because it seems to hold a lament for the death of mankind and the planet on which we live. The final phrase can be qualified by ‘but they won’t be because it’s too late’.
Joris takes a different tack;
-then the title of the next volume spoke of a new measure, of new measures, to be accurate: of those new measures needed in a world seen as “grayblack wastes” to link the above and the below, the inside and the outside, the tree-high thought ann the wastes, because, Celan goes on, “there are / still songs to be sung” poems to be written under the duress – Lightduress will be the title of the next collection – of the present condition.
Again, I’m not convinced by this, the Breathturn collection contains more than a few references to poems and poets bearing witness to the horrors of the Holocaust. Leaving aside those tall thoughts for a moment, the wastes of the world may have been created by this catastrophic event which left nothing at all behind. The industrialised murder of many millions by ‘ordinary’ men was so destructive that nothing was left except these songs that must but can’t be sung.
Regular readers will now that I don’t think enough attention is paid by critics to Celan’s experience of mental illness and how this is reflected in some of his work. Because of my own struggles with severe depression, I may over-identify with this aspect but I still maintain that it is very present in the later work. I’m not of the once prevalent view that this work is inferior to the previous material and this decline was related to increasingly severe ‘episodes’ . Instead, I think the bouts of mental anguish, in this instance, enrich the work with a purity of tone which is devoid of all comfort and pretence. Here, might it be that these ‘grayblack wastes’ are also the result of mental as well as physical damage? That all human beings are emotionally traumatised by having to live the barbarities of modern life?
I’ll therefore read into these tall thoughts as being the product of mental distress and disturbance and the gripped ‘light-tone’ as being the, now lost, normal and the real. It also occurs to me that these thoughts could also be the kind of ‘refined’ thinking that came along with the European Enlightenment and, some would argue, led to the atrocities of the 20th century, especially the Holocaust.
This ‘light-tone’ is annotated by Joris;
“Light-tone” and “light-pitch” are literal trabslations of Lichton. if one considers the word as a Celanian composite. The German word, however, is also a German word in filmography, where it refers to the process of “sound-on-film” in which sound is inscribed as variations of light values on film.
Whilst this is helpful and intriguing, I’m more in favour of a gesture towards these tall thoughts trying in vain to lighten the ‘grayblack wastes’
In conclusion, I hope I’ve shown how thoughtful and clearly expressed criticism can provoke readers into re-thinking their own assumptions and feelings about this kind of work. I also need to express again the debt of gratitude that we all owe to Pierre Joris for his astute and intelligent translations of this brilliant but demanding work.
They are THREADSUNS, neither Helios nor decentred nor multi-suns. They are the sun in threads, threads that offer (something like) the sun – and perhaps they are those songs that can, still, be sung. Granted, it takes a tree-high thought to grasp the light they shed, but there they are: threads, sunlike. A little like the thin, songlike thread of this very text?
This is a good poetic interpretation. However, in terms of ‘centre’ or ‘unity’ in the original piece we have sun, Helios, earth (the tree) and perhaps implied cosmos or universe as *both*;- note astronomy on ‘solar systems’. Easier maybe to centre on earth, save the planet! Earth (sometimes female) and boundless sky (attributes of Zeus etc).
On the centre (Pound, Yeats etc): in number symbolism this is ‘one’ or ‘unity’. But any binary is a ‘two’ (yes/no, good/bad etc, any decision). Who is taking decisions that matter to us if it is not we ourselves? Hero and antihero. I guess that one who rejects God as false, an iconoclast for instance, is an apostate. Any God we follow must be consistent with what we believe in. Aren’t we now in a world of different beliefs and indeed different ‘gods’ (most obviously Greek or Hindu etc)? What is a Christian to make of Zeus or Gnosticism or of Gaia? Didn’t Leavis think we should read the Bible as ‘literature’? I think I often try to solve this in terms of self-reliance;- we must live and abide by our own decisions, irrespective of what that ‘means’.
I missed the explication of ‘lichton’ previously but it feeds into my reading, I think/believe. (It’s easy to forget that Celan worked in German: I don’t understand it but I like to see the German text so that I can work towards it with the English. Joris is usually good for that as he doesn’t always tidy away the knotty Celanisms.)
As for the binary, this text holds them both in tension, surely: there are wastes [not just one waste, notice, but several] AND there are songs. There is also the possibility of tree-high thoughts and beyond mankind. I don’t see this as despair; it’s surprisingly realistic. A tree-high thought is just about manageable for a human being; a heavenly thought, a cloud thought, not so much.
I agree that Celan’s German usage is finely honed, with scope often for interpretation. I like your ‘holds text in tension’. Even with ‘beyond/mankind’ I can envisage continuing an earth rootedness or an awareness through (all) being. But I don’t think we read Celan to be cheerful!
Beckett/St Augustine: do not despair; one of the thieves was saved. Do not rejoice; one of the thieves was damned!