David Jones’ “The Fatigue”

The above poem was published in 1974 in the Faber collection “The Sleeping Lord and other fragments” and deals with the crucifixion, the working party of the title is the Roman soldiers detailed to accompany Christ to the cross. Before we go any further I need to make a plea from the Sadly Neglected Poets section of this blog.

I can just about understand the neglect suffered by Hoccleve, Skelton and Drayton, I can even appreciate that some may want to overlook/ignore the work of R S Thomas but I cannot understand why a poet of Jones’ talent and originality should be known more for his work as an artist than as one of the great modernist poets of the last century. The really odd thing is that he was recognised as such by both Eliot and Auden but now seems to be relegated to the third or fourth division. I accept that “The Anathemata” is very difficult but it’s also wonderfully difficult and “In Parenthesis” is by far the best poem from the trenches that we have.

Moving on to “The Working Party”, the good news is that it is nowhere near as tricky as “The Anathemata” and comes with an introduction and lots of footnotes. The even better news is that it’s very good indeed because it takes an unusual perspective and tells the ‘story’ in a way that is soaked through with compassion and humanity.

Jones converted to Catholicism in the early twenties and the Catholic faith and liturgical practice are major themes as are the Roman Empire, Welshness and the experience of ‘ordinary’ soldiers. All of these are present here. In his introduction Jones says:

I have (as in each other the other fragments) made the personnel of the Jerusalem garrison to be of mixed recruitment. Thus the NCO is from the urbs itself, while some of his men are Celts from Gaul or Britain.

and:

But if I may have falsified some of the historical accidents I have done so with deliberation in order toconvey a far more important historical truth: the heterogeneous composition of the forces of a world-imperium.

Jones’ attitude towards the Roman empire is ambiguous in that he saw it as both brutal and ruthless but he describes its inner workings with a kind of appalled and awed fascination. He was born inLondon but his father was Welsh and all of his work is littered with signs and tokens from the culture of that broken land (I have been reading R S Thomas…).

Jones identifies the three main sections of the poem as:

  • ninety lines of a dialogue between a Roman NCO and two privates of Celtic origin;
  • about a hundred lines of “soliloquy or reflection made in the context of Catholic Xtian tradition and theology” on the crucifixion;
  • over seventy lines devoted to the administration of the empire from Rome before ending with a description of the “location and allocation of the men detailed”.

I want to deal with each of these in turn but need to point out that you don’t need to believe in God to appreciate what Jones does nor do need to be Welsh or have an enthusiastic interest in the Roman empire. I don’t fall into any of these categories and yet am almost overwhelmed by the strength and beauty of the work.

Jones is particularly adept in the demotic, his characters are believable and contain more than a little humanity. This is the NCO:

  D'you reckon you're tutelar deity of the whole of Salem city,
Upper and Lower and extra-mural perimeter as well? Not
Water Gate nor Fish Gate neither, but somewhat left of
Old Gate to the right of Arx, Birket Post West inclusive, with
y'r centre on Skull Hill, that's you bit of frontage
Skull Hill's your lode
the tump without the wall.
Project an imagined line from that tump, cutting Cheese
Gully back to this same block of silex where you now stand
and you've got y'r median point of vision - now hold it.
That's how we keep
the walls of the world
sector by sub-sector
maniple by maniple
man by man,
each man as mans the wall
is as squared, dressed stone fronting the wall but one way
according to the run of the wall.
It's whoresons like you as can't keep those swivel eyes to front
one short vigilia through as are diriment to our unific and expand-
ing order.

So, we have the Roman equivalent of a platoon watch complaining because one of his guards has reported something occuring outside the area he’s supposed to be watching- which happens to be the site of the crucifixion. This has the effect of placing the reader on those walls too and into the mindset of the lower echelons of the army. The middle section in verse is a refrain about the extent and strength of empire that recurs at the end of the poem and is one of the ‘points’ that Jones wants to make. ‘Cheese Gully’ is the only part of this that is glossed – “Cf. the Tyropoeon Valley which ran north-south through the Upper and Lower divisions of the city and means the valley of the cheese-makers.” I confess that I had to look up ‘silex’ and ‘diriment’ and am now of the view that we ought to make much more use of the latter.

The above records a banal, everyday event in the first century but Jones manages to situate it within the context of empire/imperialism and also, with the reference to Skull Hill as ‘your lode’, to anticipate what is to follow. None of this is overstated and the tone of the speech accurately echoes the voice and attitude of thousands of contemporary NCOs even though ‘whoresons’ does come as a bit of a shock.

I’ve said this before but if poetry is in part about bearing witness then there are very few who fulfil this function better than David Jones who manages in a very short space of time to involve (in its widest sense) the reader in what is being described.

This is from the second section:

   And others of you to be detailed
(not on other fatigues)
for the spectacle
at the sixth hour
in Supplementary Orders
not yet drafted
for the speculatores

those who handle the instruments
who are the instruments
to hang the gleaming Trophy
on the Dreaming tree
and to see
on the leaning lignum
the spolia-bloom
where shine the Five Phalerae
that till the hard war
and for his racked-out limbs
(extensis manibus...)
the dark-bright armillae
Quis est vir qui babet coronam?
for the spined-dark wreath
squalentam barbam
without the circuit-wall
of his own patria.
Where the Spoil of Spoils
hangs to Iuppiter
and the trophies
are the Conqueror
...himself to himself
on the Windy Tree.

Most of the Latin is glossed and the rest can be looked up quite quickly. The ‘speculatores’ are glossed as “a special branch of the service directly responsible to the provincial governor for the carrying out of executions”. As well as the Latin, there are references to Anglo-Saxon, Welsh and Norse traditions all of which are explained but the Point that I want to make is that this is incredibly beautiful in capturing the poignancy of the scene perhaps because of the wide range of references that are used. What also shines through is the humanity of Jones as witness. I’ll accept that there’s a degree of obscurity going on- “Quis est vir qui babet coronam?” is glossed as “a translation of a line in poem by the 14th century Welsh Poet Gruffud Grygg, reading: Pwy yw’r gwr piau’r goron, ‘who is that man that owns the crown?'”. The overall effect however is still stunning, in contrast to the routine tones of the first part and building up to the magnificent last two lines- which are glossed as being from the Nordic ‘Havamal’.

The last section is a complete contrast again for now we are observing the processes and structures of empire:

By how an inner cabinet plot the mappa mundi when key
officials and security agents forward their overlapping but dis-
crepant graphs
by whether the session
is called for after
or before, noon
by whether a hypocaust has fouled its flues
by how long the amphora is off the ice
be whether the wind
blows moderate from trans-Tiber
or with a nasty edge
straight up the Tirbutina

As can hopefully be seen, none of this matches the level of difficulty found in ‘The Anathemata’ even though it addresses many of the same themes. As Jones notes in his introduction, ‘The Fatigue’ is interrelated with two other poems (‘The Wall’ and ‘The Tribune’s Visitation’) which are also set in Jerusalem at the time of the Passion and all of these give greater voice to Jones’ faith and his view of empire. The other two are both accomplished poems of a very high standard but ‘The Fatigue’ stands out for me because of the switch in focus and perspective that re-frames this pivotal act removing from it the conventional narrative and enabling us to see it with a fresh pair of eyes.

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12 responses to “David Jones’ “The Fatigue”

  1. I will read this carefully and I THINK I have the poem somewhere, but really, this sentence does invite examination! We read:

    I want to deal with each of these in turn but need to point out that you don’t need to believe in God to appreciate what Jones does nor do need to be Welsh or have an enthusiastic interest in the Roman empire.

    What about liking the food at the Cambridge buttery? That’s quite a list. Lists on such occasions are almost always fun.

    • Lists are wonderful, I think that I was trying to say that Jones is an outstanding poet regardless of his interests- just as you don’t need to be a High Anglican Red Tory to appreciate Sir Geoffrey Hill, nor to you need to be a fan of British stand-up comedy

      • So interests are finally distinguishable from expression in poetry? By finally I mean in your dream of poetry, in the immanence of poetry’s showing itself to one . . . Haul in circumstantial intelligence as Thomists handle nous?

      • My dream of poetry gets more than a little flak because it tries to make that distinction (but not finally) because too many other people get bogged down in the interests instead of the work. I readily accept that this is a ‘gut’ response but it’s one that I’m oddly comfortable with.

  2. I like this. The military talk obviously resembles Jones’ own Anathemata but I feel he must also have absorbed late Kipling stories like “The Church that was at Antioch” and “The Manner of Men”. In Red Shift (1973) Alan Garner also developed this idea, but his lost Roman platoon, gone native in Dancing Did-land, speak like Viet vets.

    • I hadn’t made the Garner connection even though my wife is a huge fan. I’m going to tackle one of the other fragments in the next week or so too give a bit more context.

  3. Does Jones knew Arthur’s Machen work? Now that’s interesting connection (or reference) here.

  4. Thanks for an excellent post from a fellow Jonesian.

  5. I can also see the Garner point. Have you read Red Shift? I think it was a turning point in my fascination with the past and in biographies of things, material culture as text….

    • Tried to once but didn’t get very far. I’ve also realised that Red Shift wasn’t published until 73 so influence is unlikely (ish)

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